Sunday, October 27, 2013

Earthquake and Metro Manila

(Check map here - )

After a magnitude of 7.2 earthquake struck Bohol on October 15, 2013 at 8:12 a.m. (PST), earthquake as a topic has become so prominent again. With the devastation that happened in Bohol, should a similar earthquake magnitude occurs in Manila, such calamity would be so unprecedented given the city's million population.

In 2002 it was a study was started  on the Earthquake Impact Reduction Study for Metropolitan Manila, Republic of the Philippines, and in 2004  a Final Report  was made. The report below was culled from this document -

The objective of the study was : "The earthquake impact reduction plan for Metropolitan Manila prepared by the Metropolitan Manila Earthquake Impact Reduction Study anticipates the mitigation and reduction of the expected impact.The vision of this plan is to ultimately achieve  A Safer Metropolitan Manila from Earthquake Impact.”

Consider this earthquake scenario from the study:

Analyzing past historically recorded earthquakes and instrumentally recorded earthquakes, a total 18 earthquakes were selected as scenario earthquakes, which have potential damaging effect to Metropolitan Manila; also earthquake ground motion, liquefaction potential, slope stability and tsunami height are estimated.

Finally three models namely, 

  • Model 08 (WestValley Faults M.7.2),
  • Model 13 (Manila Trench M.7.9), 
  • Model 18 (1863 Manila Bay M.6.5),

were selected for detail damage analysis because these scenario earthquakes show typical and severe damages to Metropolitan Manila.

Model 08, as the worst case

  • 170,000 residential houses will collapse,
  • 340,000 residential houses will be partly damaged, 
  • 34,000 persons will die, 
  • 114,000 persons will be injured.

Fire will breakout and burnt approximately 1,710 hectares and totally 18,000 additional persons will be killed by this secondary disaster. Moreover, infrastructures and lifelines will also be heavily damaged.

Source -

Well I just hope that most of us living here in Metropolitan Manila are properly informed about these scenarios and are educated on what to do in case this would happen.  With the use of social media I hope that there would be infographics and educational videos that will be made to educate and inform the public and hope news media and telcos would do their share to promote awareness and disaster mitigation.

In 1990s when I was a high school I had an experience of a powerful earthquake and its aftershocks, the fear and trauma is still vivid and now living again in the city and in a high rise building I hope I will be more capable in handling if such situation would occur, especially the BIG ONE that many have been anticipating. Hope it will never come.

Related Post:


Philippine faults

Fault in our neighborhood

History of earthquakes in the Philippines

News report on the earthquake (un)readiness of Manila:

Check Phivolcs FB page here -

Monday, October 21, 2013

Books to Read - List of lists

Source -

I am fond of reading (mostly Classics) and would always like to find reviews and list of books made by other people and in this post lists of books made by several English newspapers specifically by the Guardian/The Observer, The Telegraph and by a publisher - Modern Library.

The links below were taken from this post on Open Culture with the title -  W.H. Auden’s 1941 Literature Syllabus Asks Students to Read 32 Great Works, Covering 6000 Pages. As the title suggests the syllabus contain list of required reading for Auden's class.

I have read some of the books below and a lot more to read. Definitely most of them are part of my reading list. So what about you, what books have you read and will be reading from the list.

And definitely I would add to this list other Asian authors who rarely gets included from these lists.

The 100 greatest novels of all time: The list

1. Don Quixote Miguel De Cervantes
The story of the gentle knight and his servant Sancho Panza has entranced readers for centuries.
Harold Bloom on Don Quixote – the first modern novel
2. Pilgrim's Progress John Bunyan
The one with the Slough of Despond and Vanity Fair.
Robert McCrum's 100 best novels: No 1 – The Pilgrims Progress
3. Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe
The first English novel.
Robert McCrum's 100 best novels: No2 – Robinson Crusoe
4. Gulliver's Travels Jonathan Swift
A wonderful satire that still works for all ages, despite the savagery of Swift's vision.
Robert McCrum's 100 best novels, No 3 – Gulliver's Travels
5. Tom Jones Henry Fielding
The adventures of a high-spirited orphan boy: an unbeatable plot and a lot of sex ending in a blissful marriage.
Buy Tom Jones at the Guardian Bookshop
6. Clarissa Samuel Richardson
One of the longest novels in the English language, but unputdownable.
Robert McCrum's 10 best novels: No 4 - Clarissa
7. Tristram Shandy Laurence Sterne
One of the first bestsellers, dismissed by Dr Johnson as too fashionable for its own good.
Buy Tristram Shandy at the Guardian Bookshop
8. Dangerous Liaisons Pierre Choderlos De Laclos
An epistolary novel and a handbook for seducers: foppish, French, and ferocious.
Buy Les Liaisons Dangereuses at the Guardian Bookshop
9. Emma Jane Austen
Near impossible choice between this and Pride and Prejudice. But Emma never fails to fascinate and annoy.
Buy Emma at the Guardian Bookshop
10. Frankenstein Mary Shelley
Inspired by spending too much time with Shelley and Byron.
Buy Frankenstein at the Guardian Bookshop
11. Nightmare Abbey Thomas Love Peacock
A classic miniature: a brilliant satire on the Romantic novel.
Buy Nightmare Abbey at
12. The Black Sheep Honore De Balzac
Two rivals fight for the love of a femme fatale. Wrongly overlooked.
Buy The Black Sheep at the Guardian Bookshop
13. The Charterhouse of Parma Stendhal
Penetrating and compelling chronicle of life in an Italian court in post-Napoleonic France.
Buy The Charterhouse of Parma at the Guardian Bookshop
14. The Count of Monte Cristo Alexandre Dumas
A revenge thriller also set in France after Bonaparte: a masterpiece of adventure writing.
Buy The Count of Monte Cristo at the Guardian Bookshop
15. Sybil Benjamin Disraeli
Apart from Churchill, no other British political figure shows literary genius.
Buy Sybil at the Guardian Bookshop
16. David Copperfield Charles Dickens
This highly autobiographical novel is the one its author liked best.
Buy David Copperfield at the Guardian Bookshop
17. Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte
Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff have passed into the language. Impossible to ignore.
Buy Wuthering Heights at the Guardian Bookshop
18. Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte
Obsessive emotional grip and haunting narrative.
Buy Jane Eyre at the Guardian Bookshop
19. Vanity Fair William Makepeace Thackeray
The improving tale of Becky Sharp.
Buy Vanity Fair at the Guardian Bookshop
20. The Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne
A classic investigation of the American mind.
Buy The Scarlet Letter at the Guardian Bookshop
21. Moby-Dick Herman Melville
'Call me Ishmael' is one of the most famous opening sentences of any novel.
Buy Moby-Dick at the Guardian Bookshop
22. Madame Bovary Gustave Flaubert
You could summarise this as a story of adultery in provincial France, and miss the point entirely.
Buy Madame Bovary at the Guardian Bookshop
23. The Woman in White Wilkie Collins
Gripping mystery novel of concealed identity, abduction, fraud and mental cruelty.
Buy The Woman in White at the Guardian Bookshop
24. Alice's Adventures In Wonderland Lewis Carroll
A story written for the nine-year-old daughter of an Oxford don that still baffles most kids.
Buy Alice's Adventures in Wonderland at the Guardian Bookshop
25. Little Women Louisa M. Alcott
Victorian bestseller about a New England family of girls.
Buy Little Women at the Guardian Bookshop
26. The Way We Live Now Anthony Trollope
A majestic assault on the corruption of late Victorian England.
Buy The Way We Live Now at the Guardian Bookshop
27. Anna Karenina Leo Tolstoy
The supreme novel of the married woman's passion for a younger man.
Buy Anna Karenina at the Guardian Bookshop
28. Daniel Deronda George Eliot
A passion and an exotic grandeur that is strange and unsettling.
Buy Daniel Deronda at the Guardian Bookshop
29. The Brothers Karamazov Fyodor Dostoevsky
Mystical tragedy by the author of Crime and Punishment.
Buy The Brothers Karamazov at the Guardian Bookshop
30. The Portrait of a Lady Henry James
The story of Isabel Archer shows James at his witty and polished best.
Buy The Portrait of a Lady at the Guardian Bookshop
31. Huckleberry Finn Mark Twain
Twain was a humorist, but this picture of Mississippi life is profoundly moral and still incredibly influential.
Buy Huckleberry Finn at the Guardian Bookshop
32. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Robert Louis Stevenson
A brilliantly suggestive, resonant study of human duality by a natural storyteller.
Buy Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde at the Guardian Bookshop
33. Three Men in a Boat Jerome K. Jerome
One of the funniest English books ever written.
Buy Three Men in a Boat at the Guardian Bookshop
34. The Picture of Dorian Gray Oscar Wilde
A coded and epigrammatic melodrama inspired by his own tortured homosexuality.
Buy The Picture of Dorian Gray at the Guardian Bookshop
35. The Diary of a Nobody George Grossmith
This classic of Victorian suburbia will always be renowned for the character of Mr Pooter.
Buy The Diary of a Nobody at the Guardian Bookshop
36. Jude the Obscure Thomas Hardy
Its savage bleakness makes it one of the first twentieth-century novels.
Buy Jude the Obscure at the Guardian Bookshop
37. The Riddle of the Sands Erskine Childers
A prewar invasion-scare spy thriller by a writer later shot for his part in the Irish republican rising.
Buy The Riddle of the Sands at the Guardian Bookshop
38. The Call of the Wild Jack London
The story of a dog who joins a pack of wolves after his master's death.
Buy The Call of the Wild at the Guardian Bookshop
39. Nostromo Joseph Conrad
Conrad's masterpiece: a tale of money, love and revolutionary politics.
Buy Nostromo at the Guardian Bookshop
40. The Wind in the Willows Kenneth Grahame
This children's classic was inspired by bedtime stories for Grahame's son.
Buy The Wind in the Willows at the Guardian Bookshop
41. In Search of Lost Time Marcel Proust
An unforgettable portrait of Paris in the belle epoque. Probably the longest novel on this list.
Buy In Search of Lost Time at the Guardian Bookshop
42. The Rainbow D. H. Lawrence
Novels seized by the police, like this one, have a special afterlife.
Buy The Rainbow at the Guardian Bookshop
43. The Good Soldier Ford Madox Ford
This account of the adulterous lives of two Edwardian couples is a classic of unreliable narration.
Buy The Good Soldier at the Guardian Bookshop
44. The Thirty-Nine Steps John Buchan
A classic adventure story for boys, jammed with action, violence and suspense.
Buy The Thirty-Nine Steps at the Guardian Bookshop
45. Ulysses James Joyce
Also pursued by the British police, this is a novel more discussed than read.
Buy Ulysses at the Guardian Bookshop
46. Mrs Dalloway Virginia Woolf
Secures Woolf's position as one of the great twentieth-century English novelists.
Buy Mrs Dalloway at the Guardian Bookshop
47. A Passage to India E. M. Forster
The great novel of the British Raj, it remains a brilliant study of empire.
Buy A Passage to India at the Guardian Bookshop
48. The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald
The quintessential Jazz Age novel.
Buy The Great Gatsby at the Guardian Bookshop
49. The Trial Franz Kafka
The enigmatic story of Joseph K.
Buy The Trial at the Guardian Bookshop
50. Men Without Women Ernest Hemingway
He is remembered for his novels, but it was the short stories that first attracted notice.
Buy Men Without Women at the Guardian Bookshop
51. Journey to the End of the Night Louis-Ferdinand Celine
The experiences of an unattractive slum doctor during the Great War: a masterpiece of linguistic innovation.
Buy Journey to the End of the Night at the Guardian Bookshop
52. As I Lay Dying William Faulkner
A strange black comedy by an American master.
Buy As I Lay Dying at the Guardian Bookshop
53. Brave New World Aldous Huxley
Dystopian fantasy about the world of the seventh century AF (after Ford).
Buy Brave New World at the Guardian Bookshop
54. Scoop Evelyn Waugh
The supreme Fleet Street novel.
Buy Scoop at the Guardian Bookshop
55. USA John Dos Passos
An extraordinary trilogy that uses a variety of narrative devices to express the story of America.
Buy USA at the Guardian Bookshop
56. The Big Sleep Raymond Chandler
Introducing Philip Marlowe: cool, sharp, handsome - and bitterly alone.
Buy The Big Sleep at the Guardian Bookshop
57. The Pursuit Of Love Nancy Mitford
An exquisite comedy of manners with countless fans.
Buy The Pursuit of Love at the Guardian Bookshop
58. The Plague Albert Camus
A mysterious plague sweeps through the Algerian town of Oran.
Buy The Plague at the Guardian Bookshop
59. Nineteen Eighty-Four George Orwell
This tale of one man's struggle against totalitarianism has been appropriated the world over.
Buy Nineteen Eighty-Four at the Guardian Bookshop
60. Malone Dies Samuel Beckett
Part of a trilogy of astonishing monologues in the black comic voice of the author of Waiting for Godot.
Buy Malone Dies at the Guardian Bookshop
61. Catcher in the Rye J.D. Salinger
A week in the life of Holden Caulfield. A cult novel that still mesmerises.
Buy Catcher in the Rye at the Guardian Bookshop
62. Wise Blood Flannery O'Connor
A disturbing novel of religious extremism set in the Deep South.
Buy Wise Blood at the Guardian Bookshop
63. Charlotte's Web E. B. White
How Wilbur the pig was saved by the literary genius of a friendly spider.
Buy Charlotte's Web at the Guardian Bookshop
64. The Lord Of The Rings J. R. R. Tolkien
Enough said!
Buy The Lord of the Rings at the Guardian Bookshop
65. Lucky Jim Kingsley Amis
An astonishing debut: the painfully funny English novel of the Fifties.
Buy Lucky Jim at the Guardian Bookshop
66. Lord of the Flies William Golding
Schoolboys become savages: a bleak vision of human nature.
Buy Lord of the Flies at the Guardian Bookshop
67. The Quiet American Graham Greene
Prophetic novel set in 1950s Vietnam.
Buy The Quiet American at the Guardian Bookshop
68 On the Road Jack Kerouac
The Beat Generation bible.
Buy On the Road at the Guardian Bookshop
69. Lolita Vladimir Nabokov
Humbert Humbert's obsession with Lolita is a tour de force of style and narrative.
Buy Lolita at the Guardian Bookshop
70. The Tin Drum Gunter Grass
Hugely influential, Rabelaisian novel of Hitler's Germany.
Buy The Tin Drum at the Guardian Bookshop
71. Things Fall Apart Chinua Achebe
Nigeria at the beginning of colonialism. A classic of African literature.
Buy Things Fall Apart at the Guardian Bookshop
72. The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie Muriel Spark
A writer who made her debut in The Observer - and her prose is like cut glass.
Buy The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie at the Guardian Bookshop
73. To Kill A Mockingbird Harper Lee
Scout, a six-year-old girl, narrates an enthralling story of racial prejudice in the Deep South.
Buy To Kill A Mockingbird at the Guardian Bookshop
74. Catch-22 Joseph Heller
'[He] would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn't, but if he was sane he had to fly them. If he flew them he was crazy and didn't have to; if he didn't want to he was sane and had to.'
Buy Catch-22 at the Guardian Bookshop
75. Herzog Saul Bellow
Adultery and nervous breakdown in Chicago.
Buy Herzog at the Guardian Bookshop
76. One Hundred Years of Solitude Gabriel Garcia Marquez
A postmodern masterpiece.
Buy One Hundred Years of Solitude at the Guardian Bookshop
77. Mrs Palfrey at the Claremont Elizabeth Taylor
A haunting, understated study of old age.
Buy Mrs Palfrey at the Claremont at the Guardian Bookshop
78. Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy John Le Carre
A thrilling elegy for post-imperial Britain.
Buy Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy at the Guardian Bookshop
79. Song of Solomon Toni Morrison
The definitive novelist of the African-American experience.
Buy Song of Solomon at the Guardian Bookshop
80. The Bottle Factory Outing Beryl Bainbridge
Macabre comedy of provincial life.
Buy The Bottle Factory Outing at the Guardian Bookshop
81. The Executioner's Song Norman Mailer
This quasi-documentary account of the life and death of Gary Gilmore is possibly his masterpiece.
Buy The Executioner's Song at the Guardian Bookshop
82. If on a Winter's Night a Traveller Italo Calvino
A strange, compelling story about the pleasures of reading.
Buy If on a Winter's Night a Traveller at the Guardian Bookshop
83. A Bend in the River V. S. Naipaul
The finest living writer of English prose. This is his masterpiece: edgily reminiscent of Heart of Darkness.
Buy A Bend in the River at the Guardian Bookshop
84. Waiting for the Barbarians J.M. Coetzee
Bleak but haunting allegory of apartheid by the Nobel prizewinner.
Buy Waiting for the Barbarians at the Guardian Bookshop
85. Housekeeping Marilynne Robinson
Haunting, poetic story, drowned in water and light, about three generations of women.
Buy Housekeeping at the Guardian Bookshop
86. Lanark Alasdair Gray
Seething vision of Glasgow. A Scottish classic.
Buy Lanark at the Guardian Bookshop
87. The New York Trilogy Paul Auster
Dazzling metaphysical thriller set in the Manhattan of the 1970s.
Buy The New York Trilogy at the Guardian Bookshop
88. The BFG Roald Dahl
A bestseller by the most popular postwar writer for children of all ages.
Buy The BFG at the Guardian Bookshop
89. The Periodic Table Primo Levi
A prose poem about the delights of chemistry.
Buy The Periodic Table at the Guardian Bookshop
90. Money Martin Amis
The novel that bags Amis's place on any list.
Buy Money at the Guardian Bookshop
91. An Artist of the Floating World Kazuo Ishiguro
A collaborator from prewar Japan reluctantly discloses his betrayal of friends and family.
Buy An Artist of the Floating World at the Guardian Bookshop
92. Oscar And Lucinda Peter Carey
A great contemporary love story set in nineteenth-century Australia by double Booker prizewinner.
Buy Oscar and Lucinda at the Guardian Bookshop
93. The Book of Laughter and Forgetting Milan Kundera
Inspired by the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, this is a magical fusion of history, autobiography and ideas.
Buy The Book of Laughter and Forgetting at the Guardian Bookshop
94. Haroun and the Sea af Stories Salman Rushdie
In this entrancing story Rushdie plays with the idea of narrative itself.
Buy Haroun and the Sea of Stories at the Guardian Bookshop
95. La Confidential James Ellroy
Three LAPD detectives are brought face to face with the secrets of their corrupt and violent careers.
Buy LA Confidential at the Guardian Bookshop
96. Wise Children Angela Carter
A theatrical extravaganza by a brilliant exponent of magic realism.
Buy Wise Children at the Guardian Bookshop
97. Atonement Ian McEwan
Acclaimed short-story writer achieves a contemporary classic of mesmerising narrative conviction.
Buy Atonement at the Guardian Bookshop
98. Northern Lights Philip Pullman
Lyra's quest weaves fantasy, horror and the play of ideas into a truly great contemporary children's book.
Buy Northern Lights at the Guardian Bookshop
99. American Pastoral Philip Roth
For years, Roth was famous for Portnoy's Complaint . Recently, he has enjoyed an extraordinary revival.
Buy American Pastoral at the Guardian Bookshop
100. Austerlitz W. G. Sebald
Posthumously published volume in a sequence of dream-like fictions spun from memory, photographs and the German past.
Buy Austerlitz at the Guardian Bookshop
Who did we miss?
So, are you congratulating yourself on having read everything on our list or screwing the newspaper up into a ball and aiming it at the nearest bin?
Are you wondering what happened to all those American writers from Bret Easton Ellis to Jeffrey Eugenides, from Jonathan Franzen to Cormac McCarthy?
Have women been short-changed? Should we have included Pat Barker, Elizabeth Bowen, A.S. Byatt, Penelope Fitzgerald, Doris Lessing and Iris Murdoch?
What's happened to novels in translation such as Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita, Hesse's Siddhartha, Mishima's The Sea of Fertility, Süskind's Perfume and Zola's Germinal?
Writers such as J.G. Ballard, Julian Barnes, Anthony Burgess, Bruce Chatwin, Robertson Davies, John Fowles, Nick Hornby, Russell Hoban, Somerset Maugham and V.S. Pritchett narrowly missed the final hundred. Were we wrong to lose them?

The Board's List                                                               

  1. ULYSSESby James Joyce
  2. THE GREAT GATSBYby F. Scott Fitzgerald
  4. LOLITAby Vladimir Nabokov
  5. BRAVE NEW WORLDby Aldous Huxley
  6. THE SOUND AND THE FURYby William Faulkner
  7. CATCH-22by Joseph Heller
  8. DARKNESS AT NOONby Arthur Koestler
  9. SONS AND LOVERSby D.H. Lawrence
  10. THE GRAPES OF WRATHby John Steinbeck
  11. UNDER THE VOLCANOby Malcolm Lowry
  12. THE WAY OF ALL FLESHby Samuel Butler
  13. 1984by George Orwell
  14. I, CLAUDIUSby Robert Graves
  15. TO THE LIGHTHOUSEby Virginia Woolf
  16. AN AMERICAN TRAGEDYby Theodore Dreiser
  17. THE HEART IS A LONELY HUNTERby Carson McCullers
  18. SLAUGHTERHOUSE-FIVEby Kurt Vonnegut
  19. INVISIBLE MANby Ralph Ellison
  20. NATIVE SONby Richard Wright
  23. U.S.A.(trilogy)by John Dos Passos
  24. WINESBURG, OHIOby Sherwood Anderson
  25. A PASSAGE TO INDIAby E.M. Forster
  26. THE WINGS OF THE DOVEby Henry James
  27. THE AMBASSADORSby Henry James
  28. TENDER IS THE NIGHTby F. Scott Fitzgerald
  29. THE STUDS LONIGAN TRILOGYby James T. Farrell
  30. THE GOOD SOLDIERby Ford Madox Ford
  31. ANIMAL FARMby George Orwell
  32. THE GOLDEN BOWLby Henry James
  33. SISTER CARRIEby Theodore Dreiser
  34. A HANDFUL OF DUSTby Evelyn Waugh
  35. AS I LAY DYINGby William Faulkner
  36. ALL THE KING’S MENby Robert Penn Warren
  37. THE BRIDGE OF SAN LUIS REYby Thornton Wilder
  38. HOWARDS ENDby E.M. Forster
  39. GO TELL IT ON THE MOUNTAINby James Baldwin
  40. THE HEART OF THE MATTERby Graham Greene
  41. LORD OF THE FLIESby William Golding
  42. DELIVERANCEby James Dickey
  43. A DANCE TO THE MUSIC OF TIME (series)by Anthony Powell
  44. POINT COUNTER POINTby Aldous Huxley
  45. THE SUN ALSO RISESby Ernest Hemingway
  46. THE SECRET AGENTby Joseph Conrad
  47. NOSTROMOby Joseph Conrad
  48. THE RAINBOWby D.H. Lawrence
  49. WOMEN IN LOVEby D.H. Lawrence
  50. TROPIC OF CANCERby Henry Miller
  51. THE NAKED AND THE DEADby Norman Mailer
  52. PORTNOY’S COMPLAINTby Philip Roth
  53. PALE FIREby Vladimir Nabokov
  54. LIGHT IN AUGUSTby William Faulkner
  55. ON THE ROADby Jack Kerouac
  56. THE MALTESE FALCONby Dashiell Hammett
  57. PARADE’S ENDby Ford Madox Ford
  58. THE AGE OF INNOCENCEby Edith Wharton
  59. ZULEIKA DOBSONby Max Beerbohm
  60. THE MOVIEGOERby Walker Percy
  62. FROM HERE TO ETERNITYby James Jones
  64. THE CATCHER IN THE RYEby J.D. Salinger
  65. A CLOCKWORK ORANGEby Anthony Burgess
  66. OF HUMAN BONDAGEby W. Somerset Maugham
  67. HEART OF DARKNESSby Joseph Conrad
  68. MAIN STREETby Sinclair Lewis
  69. THE HOUSE OF MIRTHby Edith Wharton
  70. THE ALEXANDRIA QUARTETby Lawrence Durell
  71. A HIGH WIND IN JAMAICAby Richard Hughes
  72. A HOUSE FOR MR BISWASby V.S. Naipaul
  73. THE DAY OF THE LOCUSTby Nathanael West
  74. A FAREWELL TO ARMSby Ernest Hemingway
  75. SCOOPby Evelyn Waugh
  77. FINNEGANS WAKEby James Joyce
  78. KIMby Rudyard Kipling
  79. A ROOM WITH A VIEWby E.M. Forster
  82. ANGLE OF REPOSEby Wallace Stegner
  83. A BEND IN THE RIVERby V.S. Naipaul
  84. THE DEATH OF THE HEARTby Elizabeth Bowen
  85. LORD JIMby Joseph Conrad
  86. RAGTIMEby E.L. Doctorow
  87. THE OLD WIVES’ TALEby Arnold Bennett
  88. THE CALL OF THE WILDby Jack London
  89. LOVINGby Henry Green
  90. MIDNIGHT’S CHILDRENby Salman Rushdie
  91. TOBACCO ROADby Erskine Caldwell
  92. IRONWEEDby William Kennedy
  93. THE MAGUSby John Fowles
  94. WIDE SARGASSO SEAby Jean Rhys
  95. UNDER THE NETby Iris Murdoch
  96. SOPHIE’S CHOICEby William Styron
  97. THE SHELTERING SKYby Paul Bowles
  99. THE GINGER MANby J.P. Donleavy
  100. THE MAGNIFICENT AMBERSONSby Booth Tarkington

The Reader's List

  1. ATLAS SHRUGGEDby Ayn Rand
  3. BATTLEFIELD EARTHby L. Ron Hubbard
  4. THE LORD OF THE RINGSby J.R.R. Tolkien
  6. 1984by George Orwell
  7. ANTHEMby Ayn Rand
  8. WE THE LIVINGby Ayn Rand
  9. MISSION EARTHby L. Ron Hubbard
  10. FEARby L. Ron Hubbard
  11. ULYSSESby James Joyce
  12. CATCH-22by Joseph Heller
  13. THE GREAT GATSBYby F. Scott Fitzgerald
  14. DUNEby Frank Herbert
  15. THE MOON IS A HARSH MISTRESSby Robert Heinlein
  16. STRANGER IN A STRANGE LANDby Robert Heinlein
  17. A TOWN LIKE ALICEby Nevil Shute
  18. BRAVE NEW WORLDby Aldous Huxley
  19. THE CATCHER IN THE RYEby J.D. Salinger
  20. ANIMAL FARMby George Orwell
  21. GRAVITY’S RAINBOWby Thomas Pynchon
  22. THE GRAPES OF WRATHby John Steinbeck
  23. SLAUGHTERHOUSE FIVEby Kurt Vonnegut
  24. GONE WITH THE WINDby Margaret Mitchell
  25. LORD OF THE FLIESby William Golding
  26. SHANEby Jack Schaefer
  28. A PRAYER FOR OWEN MEANYby John Irving
  29. THE STANDby Stephen King
  31. BELOVEDby Toni Morrison
  32. THE WORM OUROBOROSby E.R. Eddison
  33. THE SOUND AND THE FURYby William Faulkner
  34. LOLITAby Vladimir Nabokov
  35. MOONHEARTby Charles de Lint
  36. ABSALOM, ABSALOM!by William Faulkner
  37. OF HUMAN BONDAGEby W. Somerset Maugham
  38. WISE BLOODby Flannery O’Connor
  39. UNDER THE VOLCANOby Malcolm Lowry
  40. FIFTH BUSINESSby Robertson Davies
  41. SOMEPLACE TO BE FLYINGby Charles de Lint
  42. ON THE ROADby Jack Kerouac
  43. HEART OF DARKNESSby Joseph Conrad
  44. YARROWby Charles de Lint
  46. ONE LONELY NIGHTby Mickey Spillane
  47. MEMORY AND DREAMby Charles de Lint
  48. TO THE LIGHTHOUSEby Virginia Woolf
  49. THE MOVIEGOERby Walker Percy
  50. TRADERby Charles de Lint
  52. THE HEART IS A LONELY HUNTERby Carson McCullers
  53. THE HANDMAID’S TALEby Margaret Atwood
  54. BLOOD MERIDIANby Cormac McCarthy
  55. A CLOCKWORK ORANGEby Anthony Burgess
  56. ON THE BEACHby Nevil Shute
  58. GREENMANTLEby Charles de Lint
  59. ENDER’S GAMEby Orson Scott Card
  60. THE LITTLE COUNTRYby Charles de Lint
  61. THE RECOGNITIONSby William Gaddis
  62. STARSHIP TROOPERSby Robert Heinlein
  63. THE SUN ALSO RISESby Ernest Hemingway
  66. THE HAUNTING OF HILL HOUSEby Shirley Jackson
  67. AS I LAY DYINGby William Faulkner
  68. TROPIC OF CANCERby Henry Miller
  69. INVISIBLE MANby Ralph Ellison
  70. THE WOOD WIFEby Terri Windling
  71. THE MAGUSby John Fowles
  72. THE DOOR INTO SUMMERby Robert Heinlein
  74. I, CLAUDIUSby Robert Graves
  75. THE CALL OF THE WILDby Jack London
  76. AT SWIM-TWO-BIRDSby Flann O’Brien
  77. FARENHEIT 451by Ray Bradbury
  78. ARROWSMITHby Sinclair Lewis
  79. WATERSHIP DOWNby Richard Adams
  80. NAKED LUNCHby William S. Burroughs
  82. GUILTY PLEASURESby Laurell K. Hamilton
  83. THE PUPPET MASTERSby Robert Heinlein
  84. ITby Stephen King
  85. Thomas Pynchon
  86. DOUBLE STARby Robert Heinlein
  87. CITIZEN OF THE GALAXYby Robert Heinlein
  89. LIGHT IN AUGUSTby William Faulkner
  91. A FAREWELL TO ARMSby Ernest Hemingway
  92. THE SHELTERING SKYby Paul Bowles
  94. MY ANTONIAby Willa Cather
  95. MULENGROby Charles de Lint
  96. SUTTREEby Cormac McCarthy
  97. MYTHAGO WOODby Robert Holdstock
  98. ILLUSIONSby Richard Bach
  99. THE CUNNING MANby Robertson Davies
  100. THE SATANIC VERSESby Salman Rushdie

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100 novels everyone should read

A Telegraph selection of the essential fiction library

100 The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkein
WH Auden thought this tale of fantastic creatures looking for lost jewellery was a “masterpiece”.
99 To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
A child’s-eye view of racial prejudice and freaky neighbours in Thirties Alabama.
98 The Home and the World by Rabindranath Tagore
A rich Bengali noble lives happily until a radical revolutionary appears.
97 The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams
Earth is demolished to make way for a Hyperspatial Express Route. Don’t panic.
96 One Thousand and One Nights Anon
A Persian king’s new bride tells tales to stall post-coital execution.
95 The Sorrows of Young Werther by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Werther loves Charlotte, but she’s already engaged. Woe is he!
94 Midnight’s Children by Salman Rushdie
The children of poor Hindus and wealthy Muslims are switched at birth.
93 Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy by John le Carré
Nursery rhyme provides the code names for British spies suspected of treason.
92 Cold Comfort Farm by Stella Gibbons
Hilarious satire on doom-laden rural romances. “Something nasty” has been observed in the woodshed.
91 The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki
The life and loves of an emperor’s son. And the world’s first novel?
90 Under the Net by Iris Murdoch
A feckless writer has dealings with a canine movie star. Comedy and philosophy combined.
89 The Golden Notebook by Doris Lessing
Lessing considers communism and women’s liberation in what Margaret Drabble calls “inner space fiction”.
88 Eugene Onegin by Alexander Pushkin
Passion, poetry and pistols in this verse novel of thwarted love.
87 On the Road by Jack Kerouac
Beat generation boys aim to “burn, burn, burn like fabulous yellow roman candles”.
86 Old Goriot by Honoré de Balzac
A disillusioning dose of Bourbon Restoration realism. The anti-hero “Rastingnac” became a byword for ruthless social climbing.
85 The Red and the Black by Stendhal
Plebian hero struggles against the materialism and hypocrisy of French society with his “force d’ame”.
84 The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas
“One for all and all for one”: the eponymous swashbucklers battle the mysterious Milady.
83 Germinal by Emile Zola
Written to “germinate” social change, Germinal unflinchingly documents the starvation of French miners.
82 The Stranger by Albert Camus
Frenchman kills an Arab friend in Algiers and accepts “the gentle indifference of the world”.
81The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco
Illuminating historical whodunnit set in a 14th-century Italian monastry.
80 Oscar and Lucinda by Peter Carey
An Australian heiress bets an Anglican priest he can’t move a glass church 400km.
79 Wide Sargasso Sea by Jean Rhys
Prequel to Jane Eyre giving moving, human voice to the mad woman in the attic.
78 Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll
Carroll’s ludic logic makes it possible to believe six impossible things before breakfast.
77 Catch-22 by Joseph Heller
Yossarian feels a homicidal impulse to machine gun total strangers. Isn’t that crazy?
76 The Trial by Franz Kafka
K proclaims he’s innocent when unexpectedly arrested. But “innocent of what”?
75 Cider with Rosie by Laurie Lee
Protagonist’s “first long secret drink of golden fire” is under a hay wagon.
74 Waiting for the Mahatma by RK Narayan
Gentle comedy in which a Gandhi-inspired Indian youth becomes an anti-British extremist.
73 All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Remarque
The horror of the Great War as seen by a teenage soldier.
72 Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant by Anne Tyler
Three siblings are differently affected by their parents’ unexplained separation.
71 The Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin
Profound and panoramic insight into 18th-century Chinese society.
70 The Leopard by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa
Garibaldi’s Redshirts sweep through Sicily, the “jackals” ousting the nobility, or “leopards”.
69 If On a Winter’s Night a Traveller by Italo Calvino
International book fraud is exposed in this playful postmodernist puzzle.
68 Crash by JG Ballard
Former TV scientist preaches “a new sexuality, born from a perverse technology”.
67 A Bend in the River by VS Naipaul
East African Indian Salim travels to the heart of Africa and finds “The world is what it is.”
66 Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Boy meets pawnbroker. Boy kills pawnbroker with an axe. Guilt, breakdown, Siberia, redemption.
65 Dr Zhivago by Boris Pasternak
Romantic young doctor’s idealism is trampled by the atrocities of the Russian Revolution.
64 The Cairo Trilogy by Naguib Mahfouz
Follows three generations of Cairenes from the First World War to the coup of 1952.
63 The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson
Stevenson’s “bogey tale” came to him in a dream.
62 Gulliver’s Travels by Jonathan Swift
Swift’s scribulous satire on travellers’ tall tales (the Lilliputian Court is really George I’s).
61 My Name Is Red by Orhan Pamuk
A painter is murdered in Istanbul in 1591. Unusually, we hear from the corpse.
60 One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez
Myth and reality melt magically together in this Colombian family saga.
59 London Fields by Martin Amis
A failed novelist steals a woman’s trashed diaries which reveal she’s plotting her own murder.
58 The Savage Detectives by Roberto Bolaño
Gang of South American poets travel the world, sleep around, challenge critics to duels.
57 The Glass Bead Game by Herman Hesse
Intellectuals withdraw from life to play a game of musical and mathematical rules.
56 The Tin Drum by Günter Grass
Madhouse memories of the Second World War. Key text of European magic realism.
55 Austerlitz by WG Sebald
Paragraph-less novel in which a Czech-born historian traces his own history back to the Holocaust.
54 Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov
Scholar’s sexual obsession with a prepubescent “nymphet” is complicated by her mother’s passion for him.
53 The Handmaid’s Tale by Margaret Atwood
After nuclear war has rendered most sterile, fertile women are enslaved for breeding.
52 The Catcher in the Rye by JD Salinger
Expelled from a “phony” prep school, adolescent anti-hero goes through a difficult phase.
51 Underworld by Don DeLillo
From baseball to nuclear waste, all late-20th-century American life is here.
50 Beloved by Toni Morrison
Brutal, haunting, jazz-inflected journey down the darkest narrative rivers of American slavery.
49 The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck
“Okies” set out from the Depression dustbowl seeking decent wages and dignity.
48 Go Tell It On the Mountain by James Baldwin
Explores the role of the Christian Church in Harlem’s African-American community.
47The Unbearable Lightness of Being by Milan Kundera
A doctor’s infidelities distress his wife. But if life means nothing, it can’t matter.
46 The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie by Muriel Spark
A meddling teacher is betrayed by a favourite pupil who becomes a nun.
45 The Voyeur by Alain Robbe-Grillet
Did the watch salesman kill the girl on the beach. If so, who heard?
44 Nausea by Jean-Paul Sartre
A historian becomes increasingly sickened by his existence, but decides to muddle on.
43 The Rabbit books by John Updike
A former high school basketball star is unsatisfied by marriage, fatherhood and sales jobs.
42 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain
A boy and a runaway slave set sail on the Mississippi, away from Antebellum “sivilisation”.
41 The Hound of the Baskervilles by Arthur Conan Doyle
A drug addict chases a ghostly dog across the midnight moors.
40 The House of Mirth by Edith Wharton
Lily Bart craves luxury too much to marry for love. Scandal and sleeping pills ensue.
39 Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe
A Nigerian yam farmer’s local leadership is shaken by accidental death and a missionary’s arrival.
38The Great Gatsby by F Scott Fitzgerald
A mysterious millionaire’s love for a woman with “a voice full of money” gets him in trouble.
37 The Warden by Anthony Trollope
“Of all novelists in any country, Trollope best understands the role of money,” said W?H Auden.
36 Les Misérables by Victor Hugo
An ex-convict struggles to become a force for good, but it ends badly.
35 Lucky Jim by Kingsley Amis
An uncommitted history lecturer clashes with his pompous boss, gets drunk and gets the girl.
34 The Big Sleep by Raymond Chandler
“Dead men are heavier than broken hearts” in this hardboiled crime noir.
33 Clarissa by Samuel Richardson
Epistolary adventure whose heroine’s bodice is savagely unlaced by the brothel-keeping Robert Lovelace.
32 A Dance to the Music of Time by Anthony Powell
Twelve-book saga whose most celebrated character wears “the wrong kind of overcoat”.
31 Suite Francaise by Irène Némirovsky
Published 60 years after their author was gassed, these two novellas portray city and village life in Nazi-occupied France.
30 Atonement by Ian McEwan
Puts the “c” word in the classic English country house novel.
29 Life: a User’s Manual by Georges Perec
The jigsaw puzzle of lives in a Parisian apartment block. Plus empty rooms.
28 Tom Jones by Henry Fielding
Thigh-thwacking yarn of a foundling boy sewing his wild oats before marrying the girl next door.
27 Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
Human endeavours “to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world” have tragic consequences.
26 Cranford by Elizabeth Gaskell
Northern villagers turn their bonnets against the social changes accompanying the industrial revolution.
25 The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins
Hailed by T?S Eliot as “the first, the longest, and the best of modern English detective novels”.
24 Ulysses by James Joyce
Modernist masterpiece reworking of Homer with humour. Contains one of the longest “sentences” in English literature: 4,391 words.
23 Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert
Buying the lies of romance novels leads a provincial doctor’s wife to an agonising end.
22 A Passage to India by EM Forster
A false accusation exposes the racist oppression of British rule in India.
21 1984 by George Orwell
In which Big Brother is even more sinister than the TV series it inspired.
20 Tristram Shandy by Laurence Sterne
Samuel Johnson thought Sterne’s bawdy, experimental novel was too odd to last. Pah!
19 The War of the Worlds by HG Wells
Bloodsucking Martian invaders are wiped out by a dose of the sniffles.
18 Scoop by Evelyn Waugh
Waugh based the hapless junior reporter in this journalistic farce on former Telegraph editor Bill Deedes.
17 Tess of the D’Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy
Sexual double standards are held up to the cold, Wessex light in this rural tragedy.
16 Brighton Rock by Graham Greene
A seaside sociopath mucks up murder and marriage in Greene’s literary Punch and Judy show.
15 The Code of the Woosters by PG Wodehouse
A scrape-prone toff and pals are suavely manipulated by his gentleman’s personal gentleman.
14 Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë
Out on the winding, windy moors Cathy and Heathcliff become each other’s “souls”. Then he storms off.
13 David Copperfield by Charles Dickens
Debt and deception in Dickens’s semi-autobiographical Bildungsroman crammed with cads, creeps and capital fellows.
12 Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe
A slave trader is shipwrecked but finds God, and a native to convert, on a desert island.
11 Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen
Every proud posh boy deserves a prejudiced girl. And a stately pile.
10 Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes
Picaresque tale about quinquagenarian gent on a skinny horse tilting at windmills.
Mrs Dalloway by Virginia Woolf
Septimus’s suicide doesn’t spoil our heroine’s stream-of-consciousness party.
Disgrace by JM Coetzee
An English professor in post-apartheid South Africa loses everything after seducing a student.
Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë
Poor and obscure and plain as she is, Mr Rochester wants to marry her. Illegally.
6 In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust
Seven-volume meditation on memory, featuring literature’s most celebrated lemony cake.
Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad
“The conquest of the earth,” said Conrad, “is not a pretty thing.”
The Portrait of a Lady by Henry James
An American heiress in Europe “affronts her destiny” by marrying an adulterous egoist.
Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy
Tolstoy’s doomed adulteress grew from a daydream of “a bare exquisite aristocratic elbow”.
Moby-Dick by Herman Melville
Monomaniacal Captain Ahab seeks vengeance on the white whale which ate his leg.
1 Middlemarch by George Eliot
“One of the few English novels written for grown-up people,” said Virginia Woolf.